Norwegian future value chains for liquid hydrogen

Greensight has recently been involved in a project where we investigated barriers for a future Norwegian value chain on liquid hydrogen for maritime use. The report is especially focused on volumes of LH2 for 3 vessel types: car ferries, high-speed   crafts   and   platform   supply   vessels   in   the   region   from   Rogaland   to Trøndelag. We have included two production methods of hydrogen in our scope: gas reformation using natural gas and electrolysis using electricity and water.

The most obvious barrier is the lack of access to liquid hydrogen produced in Norway. In addition to transportation costs, the current liquefaction capacity in Europe of 20 tons per day is far from the volumes needed. If just 25 percent of the energy consumption from the three vessel types is converted to hydrogen it would require 72 tons per day.

To achieve an effective distribution of larger volumes of LH2 along the coastline, bunkering vessels and/or tankers must be developed. In addition, there are no commercially available bunkering stations available for maritime use. Throughout the value chain, further work on regulations, standards and codes developed specifically for the maritime use of liquid hydrogen is needed.

From a price perspective LH2 today is not competitive with other fuels. Liquid hydrogen transported from Europe to Southern Norway has a retail price of about 15 Euro/kg, making the cost of delivered kWh to the propeller more than eight times higher than for marine gas oil. But through the application of existing technologies and establishment of large production and liquefaction facilities in Norway, a cost in the range of 3,5-7,5 Euro/kg is possible, making the cost per kWh competitive with bio-diesel realistic.

The project has been supported financially by the Hordaland County Council and led by NCE Maritime Cleantech – a cluster organization focusing on establishing sustainable innovation projects with commercial potential and working together for new clean maritime solutions. Research and analysis are done by cluster members Greensight and Norled, with support from project partners Equinor and Gasnor.

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